V-2 / A4
The V-2 rocket (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2, i.e. reprisal weapon 2), technical name A4, was a long-range ballistic missile that was developed at the beginning of the Second World War in Germany, specifically targeted at Belgium and sites in southeastern England.
The rocket was the world's first long-range combat-ballistic missile and first known human artifact to achieve sub-orbital spaceflight. It was the progenitor of all modern rockets, including those used by the United States and Soviet Union space programs, which gained access to the scientists and designs through Operation Paperclip and Operation Osoaviakhim.